The 4C method is a technique for measuring body composition that involves analyzing the four primary components of the body's mass: body water, protein, mineral, and body fat. Here's a brief overview of each component and how it is measured:

1. Body water: This refers to the total amount of water in the body, including both intracellular water (inside cells) and extracellular water (outside cells). Body water can be measured using a technique called bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), which involves passing a low-level electrical current through the body and measuring the resistance of different tissues.

2. Protein: This refers to the amount of protein in the body's lean tissue, including muscle, organs, and bones. Protein can be estimated using a variety of techniques, including anthropometry (measuring body dimensions), BIA, and other methods.

3. Mineral: This refers to the amount of minerals in the body, including calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals that make up bones and other tissues. Mineral content can be estimated using various techniques, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or BIA.

4. Body fat: This refers to the amount of fat in the body, including both essential fat (which is necessary for normal physiological function) and storage fat (which can accumulate in adipose tissue). Body fat can be estimated using several methods, including skinfold thickness measurements, BIA, DXA, and other techniques.

By measuring these four components of the body, the 4C method can provide a detailed assessment of body composition, which can be useful for assessing overall health and fitness.